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Module 2: Custom Insights and Custom Findings

A key feature of Security Hub is the ability to create security findings that are above and beyond the native integrations that Security Hub has with AWS services or 3rd party providers. This custom findings feature gives customers the flexibility to build their security checks against their AWS environment and import them into Security Hub.

In the environment for this workshop, multiple sources that are sending custom findings into Security Hub:

  • The open-source Cloud Custodian project running on an EC2 instance.
  • A Config Rule checking for non-compliant AMIs.
  • A Lambda function looking for non-compliant secrets.

This module will guide you on how to either view or fully integrate these findings sources into Security Hub.


  1. Create Custom Findings with AWS Config - 15 min
  2. Create Custom Insight for Custom Findings - 10 min

Create Custom Findings with AWS Config

In this section we will cover how you can create your own findings in Security Hub. The foundation for this section will be using AWS Config Rules to identify compliance violations and then posting those violations into Security Hub.

This is a representation of the architecture you will be implementing:


For this part of the workshop a Config rule has already been defined. The specific Config rule being used is approved-amis-by-id. This rule looks for EC2 instances backed by AMIs that are not in the rule's list of approved AMIs. Any EC2 instances that are not using an AMI that is in the approved list will be reported by the rule as noncompliant.

Create EventBridge Rule

This section creates the rule which will catch messages sent from Config rules about noncompliant resources and route them to a target.

  1. Navigate to the Amazon EventBridge Console.

  2. Click on Create rule on the right side.

    Custom Action

  3. In the Create rule page give your rule a name and a description that represents the rule's purpose.

    Custom Action

    All Config Rule output is sent as events to the AWS default event bus. The define pattern section allows you to identify filters to take a specific action when matched events appear.

  4. Under Define pattern, select Event pattern.

  5. Select Pre-defined pattern by service.

  6. In the drop down for Service Provider, select AWS.

  7. In the drop down for Service Name, select or type and select Config.

  8. For the Event Type, choose Config Rules Compliance Change .

  9. Chose the Specific rule name(s) radio button and enter approved-amis-by-id in the text box.

    Custom Action

  10. Under Select targets, ensure Lambda function is populated in the top drop down and then select ec2-non-compliant-ami-sechub lambda function.

    Custom Action

    ec2-non-compliant-ami-sechub is a custom Lambda function created during the setup of this workshop. Feel free to look at the function to learn more about how it integrates with Security Hub.

  11. Click Create.

Create a rule to track approved AMIs

This section will run the Config rule to generate information on noncompliant resources and send them to Security Hub.

  1. Navigate to the AWS Config dashboard

  2. From the Config Dashboard click Rules on the left menu.

    Make sure to not choose Rules from the Aggregated view menu. This requires Config Aggregator and this feature is not used in this workshop.

  3. In the Rules page there will be one rule named approved-amis-by-id. Click on the rule name to go to the detail page for that rule.

    In the rule detail screen you will see the rule configured with a list of approved AMIs. There will also be one resource showing as noncompliant. Now that the EventBridge is in place you want to see the noncompliant instances show in Security Hub as a finding.


  4. In the Actions drop down choose Delete results. Enter Delete in the the confirmation box.

  5. Click on the refresh button in the Resources in scope section. The noncompliant resource section should now be empty.

  6. In the Actions drop down choose Re-evaluate. You will get a message that the Config rule is being reevaluated.

  7. To track progress of the rule re-evaluation you can either refresh the entire page in your browser or use the refresh button in the Resources in scope section of the page. It may take a couple minutes and refreshes before the noncompliant resource re-appears in the Resources in scope section.

An instance should now be showing as noncompliant in the Resources in scope section. This re-run of the Config rule will trigger the EventBridge rule that is looking for noncompliant resources, resulting in the finding showing in Security Hub.

Clearing results and re-evaluating the Config rule is being done to help force sending findings into Security Hub for this workshop. Under normal circumstances you will not need manually run the Config rule in order to get findings to show in Security Hub. Once you have the Config and EventBridge rules configured, new noncompliant resources will automatically flow into Security Hub as a Config rule finds noncompliant resources.

View the noncompliant AMI finding in Security Hub

  1. Navigate to the Security Hub dashboard.

  2. Click on the Findings option in the left-hand navigate menu.

  3. You should see a finding towards the top of the findings list with a Company of Personal and a Title about an unapproved AMI for an instance. This finding is the result of your compliance rule and its integration with EventBridge. Click on the Title link for the finding to view more details for your finding.

If the finding is not showing towards the top you can filter for the finding. Click in the fiter bar and choose a filter of "Title", choose a filter match type of "starts with" and enter "Unapproved AMI" as the filter value.


You now have a setup in place that helps demonstrate how you can send custom findings into Security Hub using AWS data sources and EventBridge rules.

In your environment the Lambda function named "find-secrets-without-rotation" checks for secrets that have a rotation time that is beyond the max days parameter on the function. When secrets are found with a rotation time beyond what is defined in the function a finding is created in Security Hub. Take some time to explore the Lambda function to see how you can directly send custom findings into Security Hub.

Create Custom Insights for Custom Findings

This section will walk you through how to create a custom insight to give you more visibility around the sources that are sending findings into Security Hub for custom findings.

When a custom finding is sent into Security Hub it will have a company of Personal and a product of Default. Unlike integrations from AWS services and approved 3rd parties, you cannot use the Company and/or Product fields to determine the source of your finding for custom findings.

However, Security Hub provides the ability to create insights that filter on more attributes than you can see from the initial findings console. You can filter on additional attributes that are passed in as part of a finding that enable you to get more granular in how you filter findings.

For this lab the custom findings have been built to utilize the Generator ID field in the AWS Security Finding Format (ASFF) to help in identifying sources of findings.

  1. Navigate to the Security Hub dashboard.

  2. Choose Insights from the left hand navigation.

  3. Click Create insight.

  4. Click in the filter field at the top to add additional filters. Choose a filter field of Company name, a filter match type of is, and a value of Personal.


  5. Now add one more filter. Choose a filter field of Product name, a filter match type of is, and a value of Default.

  6. Choose a Grouping of Group by:. In the list of options choose Generator ID.

  7. Click on Create insight to save your custom insight.

  8. Give your insight a name that is meaningful to you and click Create insight. Config

  9. Refresh your browser to reload the screen with Graphs.


You now have a custom insight that allows you to get more visibility around custom findings that are coming into Security Hub, allowing you more visibility into what your security findings are related to, what the source of the findings are, and where you should prioritize your remediation efforts.
For the findings in this custom insight you can click on the resource ID links to drill into the specific findings related to those resources.

Feel free to play with the grouping for your insight to see other attributes that you can group by and the different views of data it creates.

It's ok if your list of findings is different.